Afghanistan Afghanistan

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Afghanistan ( ( listen); Pashto/Dari: افغانستان‬, Pashto: Afġānistān [avɣɒnisˈtɒn, ab-], Dari: Afġānestān [avɣɒnesˈtɒn]), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experience very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, and the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia. The land has historically been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet, and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires". The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthalites, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, and others have risen to form major empires.

The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. Its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence, eventually becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, and later for 40 years under Zahir Shah. In the late 1970s, Afghanistan in a series of coups first became a socialist state and then a Soviet Union protectorate. This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the fundamentalist Islamic group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for almost five years. The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, and a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed.

Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 35 million, mostly composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks. It is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 167th out of 186 countries in a 2016 report from the International Monetary Fund.



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AAb e Kamari (Badghis)   Adraskan (Hirat)   Afaki (Takhar)   Aibak (Samangan)   Alah Say (Kapisa)   `Alaqahdari Atghar (Zabul)   `Alaqahdari Dishu (Hilmand)   `Alaqahdari Gelan (Ghazni)   `Alaqahdari Kiran wa Munjan (Badakhshan)   `Alaqahdari Sarobi (Paktika)   `Alaqahdari Shah Joy (Zabul)   `Alaqahdari ye Almar (Faryab)   `Alaqahdari Yosuf Khel (Paktika)   Aliabad (Kunduz)   `Ali Khel (Paktya)   `Ali Sher `Alaqahdari (Khost)   Amanzi (Kandahar)   Anar Darah (Farah)   Andkhoy (Faryab)   Aqchah (Jawzjan)   Aq Kupruk (Balkh)   Art Khwajah (Takhar)   Asadabad (Kunar)   Ashkasham (Badakhshan)   Asmar (Kunar)  

BBabasakhib (Kandahar)   Bagh e Maidan (Parwan)   Baghlan (Baghlan)   Bagrami (Kabul)   Baharak (Badakhshan)   Bala Murghab (Badghis)   Bal Chiragh (Faryab)   Balkh (Balkh)   Bamyan (Bamyan)   Banu (Baghlan)   Baraki Barak (Logar)   Barg e Matal (Nuristan)   Basawul (Nangarhar)   Bazarak (Parwan)   Bazar e Talah (Baghlan)   Bazar e Tashkan (Badakhshan)   Bulolah (Bamyan)   Burkah (Baghlan)  

CChah Ab (Takhar)   Chahar Bagh (Faryab)   Chahar Burj (Hirat)   Chahar Qal`ah (Ghazni)   Chakaran (Badakhshan)   Chakaray (Kabul)   Chaman (Kandahar)   Chandal Ba'i (Kabul)   Charikar (Parwan)   Charkh (Logar)   Chimtal (Balkh)   Chinar (Kandahar)   Chiras (Sari Pul)   Chisht e Sharif (Hirat)   Chowney (Uruzgan)  

DDahan e Jarf (Parwan)   Dandar (Parwan)   Dangam (Kunar)   Darayim (Badakhshan)   Darqad (Takhar)   Darzab (Jawzjan)   Dasht e Archi (Kunduz)   Dasht e Qal`ah (Takhar)   Dasht e Qal`ah (Farah)   Dehdadi (Balkh)   Deh e Now (Kabul)   Deh e Salah (Baghlan)   Dehi (Samangan)   Deh Khwahan (Badakhshan)   De Narkhel Kelay (Uruzgan)   Doshi (Baghlan)   Dowlatabad (Balkh)   Dowlatabad (Faryab)   Dowlat Shah (Laghman)   Dowlatyar (Ghor)   Dowr e Rabat (Kunduz)   Duab (Samangan)   Du Lainah (Ghor)   Du Qal`ah (Farah)   Dwah Manday (Khost)  

FFaizabad (Jawzjan)   Farah (Farah)   Farkhar (Takhar)   Fayroz Koh (Ghor)   Fayzabad (Faryab)   Fayzabad (Badakhshan)  

G Gardez (Paktya)   Gereshk (Hilmand)   Ghazni (Ghazni)   Ghoriyan (Hirat)   Ghormach (Badghis)   Ghulam `Ali (Parwan)   Ghurayd Gharame (Badakhshan)   Gomal Kelay (Paktika)   Goshtah (Nangarhar)   Guzarah (Hirat)  

HHafiz Moghul (Badakhshan)   Haji Khel (Kapisa)   Herat (Hirat)   Hukumat e Nad `Ali (Hilmand)   Hukumat e Shinkai (Zabul)   Hukumati Azrah (Paktya)   Hukumati Dahanah ye Ghori (Baghlan)  

IIbrahim Khan (Parwan)   Imam Sahib (Kunduz)   Injil (Hirat)   Istalif (Kabul)  

JJabal os Saraj (Parwan)   Jalalabad (Nangarhar)   Jalrez (Wardak)   Jani Khel (Paktika)   Jawand (Badghis)   Jurm (Badakhshan)  

K Kabul (Kabul)   Kafir Qala (Hirat)   Kai (Nangarhar)   Kajran (Uruzgan)   Kalafgan (Takhar)   Kalakan (Kabul)   Kalan Deh (Ghazni)   Kandahar (Kandahar)   Kanday (Kunar)   Karbori (Kunar)   Karukh (Hirat)   Kazhah (Nangarhar)   Khadir (Uruzgan)   Khafizan (Nangarhar)   Khakiran (Zabul)   Khamyab (Jawzjan)   Khanabad (Kunduz)   Khanaqah (Jawzjan)   Khanaqah (Takhar)   Khandud (Badakhshan)   Khan Neshin (Hilmand)   Khash (Nimroz)   Khayr Kot (Paktika)   Khinj (Parwan)   Khinjan (Baghlan)   Khoshamand (Paktika)   Khoshi (Logar)   Khost (Khost)   Khudaydad Khel (Baghlan)   Khugyani (Kandahar)   Khulbisat (Khost)   Khulm (Balkh)   Khwajah Du Koh (Jawzjan)   Khwajah Ghar (Takhar)   Kiraman (Parwan)   Kishk e Nakhud (Kandahar)   Kotowal (Nangarhar)   Kuhsan (Hirat)   Kunduz (Kunduz)   Kushk (Hirat)   Kushkak (Farah)   Kushk e Kuhnah (Hirat)  

LLab Sar (Balkh)   La`l (Ghor)   Langar (Samangan)   Larkird (Sari Pul)   Lash (Faryab)   Lash e Juwayn (Farah)   Lashkar Gah (Hilmand)  

MMaidan Khulah (Paktya)   Mama Khel (Nangarhar)   Mandol (Nuristan)   Manogay (Kunar)   March (Badakhshan)   Mardian (Jawzjan)   Markaz e Hukumat e Darweshan (Hilmand)   Markaz e Hukumat e Sultan e Bakwah (Farah)   Markaz e Sayyidabad (Wardak)   Markaz e Woluswali ye Achin (Nangarhar)   Mashhad (Badakhshan)   Maydanshakhr (Wardak)   Maymana (Faryab)   Maymay (Badakhshan)   Mazar e Sharif (Balkh)   Mehtar Lam (Laghman)   Mingajik (Jawzjan)   Mirabad (Nimroz)   Miran (Wardak)   Miray (Ghazni)   Mir Bachah Kot (Kabul)   Mizan `Alaqahdari (Zabul)   Muhammad Aghah Wuluswali (Logar)   Muqer (Ghazni)   Musa Qal`ah (Hilmand)   Muta Khan (Paktika)  

NNahrin (Baghlan)   Narang (Kunar)   Naray (Kunar)   Nayak (Bamyan)   Nayak (Zabul)   Nikeh (Paktika)   Nili (Uruzgan)   Now Dahanak (Parwan)   Now Zad (Hilmand)   Nurgal (Kunar)  

OOkak (Ghazni)   Omnah (Paktika)  

PPachir wa Agam (Nangarhar)   Paghman (Kabul)   Panjab (Bamyan)   Parun (Nuristan)   Pasaband (Ghor)   Pashmul (Kandahar)   Pasnay (Sari Pul)   Pas Pul (Badakhshan)   Pul e `Alam (Logar)   Pul e Hisar (Baghlan)   Pul e Khumri (Baghlan)   Pul e Sangi (Kabul)  

QQadis (Badghis)   Qal`ah ye Farsi (Hirat)   Qal`ah ye Kuf (Badakhshan)   Qal`ah ye Kuhnah (Farah)   Qal`ah ye Na`im (Kabul)   Qal`ah ye Shahi (Nangarhar)   Qal`ah ye Shahr (Sari Pul)   Qala i Naw (Badghis)   Qalat (Zabul)   Qarah Bagh (Hirat)   Qarah Bagh (Ghazni)   Qarah Bagh Bazar (Kabul)   Qaram Qol (Faryab)   Qaranghu Toghai (Balkh)   Qarawul (Kunduz)   Qarchi Gak (Balkh)   Qarghah'i (Laghman)   Qarqin (Jawzjan)   Qaryeh ye Owbeh (Hirat)   Qashqal (Parwan)   Quchanghi (Uruzgan)   Qurghan (Faryab)  

RRabat e Sangi ye Pa'in (Hirat)   Ramak (Ghazni)   Rudbar (Nimroz)   Rustaq (Takhar)   Ru ye Sang (Baghlan)  

SSalam Khel (Paktya)   Sangalak i Kaisar (Faryab)   Sangar Saray (Nangarhar)   Sang Atesh (Badghis)   Sang e Charak (Sari Pul)   Sang e Mashah (Ghazni)   Sangin (Hilmand)   Sar Chakan (Faryab)   Sar e Pul (Sari Pul)   Sar e Tayghan (Uruzgan)   Sarfiraz Kala (Ghazni)   Sar Kani (Kunar)   Sarobi (Kabul)   Sayad (Sari Pul)   Sayagaz (Zabul)   Shahrak (Ghor)   Shahran (Badakhshan)   Shahr e Safa (Zabul)   Sharan (Paktika)   Shaykh Amir Kelay (Khost)   Sherwani ye Bala (Kapisa)   Sheywah (Nangarhar)   Shibirghan (Jawzjan)   Shindand (Hirat)   Shwak (Paktya)   Sidqabad (Kapisa)   Siyahgird (Parwan)   Sozmah Qal`ah (Sari Pul)   Sperah (Khost)   Spin Boldak (Kandahar)   Ster Giyan (Paktika)   Sultanpur e `Ulya (Nangarhar)   Surkh Bilandi (Kabul)  

TTagab (Kapisa)   Tagaw Bay (Sari Pul)   Taloqan (Takhar)   Taqchah Khanah (Takhar)   Tarinkot (Uruzgan)   Taywarah (Ghor)   Tir Pul (Hirat)   Titan (Ghor)   Tormay (Ghazni)   Tsamkani (Paktya)   Tsaperai (Paktya)   Tsowkey (Kunar)   Tukzar (Sari Pul)   Tulak (Ghor)  

U'Unabah (Parwan)   Urgun (Paktika)   Uruzgan (Uruzgan)  

WWasher (Hilmand)   Wuleswali Bihsud (Wardak)   Wuleswali Sayyid Karam (Paktya)   Wuluswali `Alingar (Laghman)   Wutahpur (Kunar)  

YYahya Khel (Paktika)   Yangi Qal`ah (Takhar)  

ZZamto Kelay (Kandahar)   Zarah Sharan (Paktika)   Zaranj (Nimroz)   Zargaran (Kabul)   Zarghun Shahr (Paktika)   Zaybak (Badakhshan)   Zerok Alakadari (Paktika)   Ziarat e Shah Maqsud (Kandahar)   Zindah Jan (Hirat)   Ziraki (Badakhshan)   Zorkot (Khost)   Zurmat (Paktya)  
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