Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Bosnia and Herzegovina ( ( listen) or ; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH), pronounced [bôsna i xěrtseɡoʋina]), sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe in the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is an almost landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum. It is bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, Herzegovina, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.

Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

The country is one of the most frequently visited countries in the region, projected to have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world until 2020. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music, architecture and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe. The country is home to three main ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is usually identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Roma, Poles, Ukrainians and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third region, the Brčko District, governed under local government. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is complex and consists of 10 cantons.

Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks highly in terms of human development, and has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors. The country has a social security and universal healthcare system, and primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free. It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan.



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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bosnia_and_Herzegovina", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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AAmajlije (Repuplika Srpska)   apljina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

B Banja Luka (Repuplika Srpska)   Banovii (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Biha (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bijeljina (Repuplika Srpska)   Bilea (Repuplika Srpska)   Bosanska Kostajnica (Repuplika Srpska)   Bosanska Krupa (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bosanska Otoka (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bosanski Brod (Repuplika Srpska)   Bosanski Novi (Repuplika Srpska)   Bosanski Petrovac (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bosanski Šamac (Repuplika Srpska)   Bosansko Grahovo (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bratunac (Repuplika Srpska)   Breza (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Brko (Brcko)   Bugojno (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Busovaa (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Bužim (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

CCazin (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

DDerventa (Repuplika Srpska)   Doboj (Repuplika Srpska)   Domaljevac (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Donji Vakuf (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Drvar (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

Eeli (Repuplika Srpska)   elinac (Repuplika Srpska)  

FFoa (Repuplika Srpska)   Fojnica (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

GGacko (Repuplika Srpska)   Glamo (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Goražde (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Gornji Vakuf Uskoplje (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Gradaac (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Gradiška (Repuplika Srpska)   Grude (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

HHan Pijesak (Repuplika Srpska)  

IIlijaš (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   itluk (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

JJablanica (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Jajce (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

KKakanj (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Kalesija (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Kalinovik (Repuplika Srpska)   Kiseljak (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Kladanj (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Klju (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Konjic (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Kotor Varoš (Repuplika Srpska)   Kozarska Dubica (Repuplika Srpska)   Kreševo (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Kupres (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

LLaktaši (Repuplika Srpska)   Livno (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Ljubinje (Repuplika Srpska)   Ljubuški (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Lopare (Repuplika Srpska)   Lukavac (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

MMaglaj (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Mali Zvornik (Repuplika Srpska)   Milii (Repuplika Srpska)   Modria (Repuplika Srpska)   Mostar (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Mrkonji Grad (Repuplika Srpska)  

NNeum (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Nevesinje (Repuplika Srpska)   Novi Travnik (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Novo Goražde (Repuplika Srpska)  

OOdžak (Repuplika Srpska)   Olovo (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Orašje (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

PPale (Repuplika Srpska)   Petrovo (Repuplika Srpska)   Posušje (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Prijedor (Repuplika Srpska)   Prnjavor (Repuplika Srpska)   Prozor (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

RRogatica (Repuplika Srpska)   Rudo (Repuplika Srpska)  

SSanski Most (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Sapna (Repuplika Srpska)   Sarajevo (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Šekovii (Repuplika Srpska)   Šipovo (Repuplika Srpska)   Široki Brijeg (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Sokolac (Repuplika Srpska)   Srbac (Repuplika Srpska)   Srebrenica (Repuplika Srpska)   Srebrenik (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Stolac (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

TTarin (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Tešanj (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Tesli (Repuplika Srpska)   Tomislavgrad (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Travnik (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Trebinje (Repuplika Srpska)   Trnovo (Repuplika Srpska)   Tuzla (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

UUgljevik (Repuplika Srpska)   Ustikolina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

VVareš (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Velika Kladuša (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Višegrad (Repuplika Srpska)   Visoko (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Vitez (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Vlasenica (Repuplika Srpska)   Vogoša (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)  

ZZavidovii (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Zenica (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Žepe (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Živinice (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina)   Zvornik (Repuplika Srpska)  
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