Iran Iran

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Iran (Persian: ایرانIrān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] (listen)), also called Persia (), and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایرانJomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān (listen)), is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BCE under Cyrus the Great, whose Achaemenid Empire stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, one of the largest empires in history. The empire fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion established the Parthian Empire in the third century BCE, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.

Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, and the subsequent Islamization of Iran led to the decline of the once dominant Zoroastrian religion. Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age. Over the next two centuries, a series of native Muslim dynasties emerged before the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols conquered the region. The rise of the native Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history.

Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century created a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution, which established the existing Islamic republic, combining elements of a parliamentary democracy with a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". For most of the 1980s, Iran fought a war with Iraq that resulted in severe casualties and economic devastation for both sides.

Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels—including the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves—exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.

Iran's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. An historically multicultural country, it remains a pluralistic society comprising numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris, Kurds, Mazandaranis and Lurs.

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AAbadan (Khuzestan)   Abadeh (Fars)   Abarkuh (Fars)   Ab Bar (Zanjan)   `Abbasabad (Mazandaran)   Abdanan (Ilam)   Abhar (Zanjan)   Abyek (Qazvin)   Aghajari (Khuzestan)   Ahar (East Azarbaijan)   Ahram (Bushehr)   Ahvaz (Khuzestan)   `Ajab Shir (East Azarbaijan)   Akbarabad (Fars)   Aleshtar (Lorestan)   `Aliabad e Katul (Golestan)   Aligudarz (Lorestan)   Alvand (Qazvin)   Alvand (Zanjan)   Amlash (Gilan)   Amol (Mazandaran)   Anar (Kerman)   `Anbarabad (Kerman)   Andimeshk (Khuzestan)   Aq Qala (Golestan)   Aq Qayeh (Golestan)   Aradan (Semnan)   Arak (Markazi)   Arakvaz e Malekshahi (Ilam)   Aran Bidgol (Esfahan)   Ardabil (Ardebil)   Ardakan (Yazd)   Ardal (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Ardestan (Esfahan)   Arsanjan (Fars)   Arzu'iyeh (Kerman)   Asadabad (Hamadan)   Asadiyeh (South Khorasan)   Ashkhaneh (North Khorasan)   Ashtian (Markazi)   Astaneh ye Ashrafiyeh (Gilan)   Astara (Gilan)   Azadshahr (Golestan)   Azadshahr (Hamadan)   Azarshahr (East Azarbaijan)   Azna (Lorestan)   Azna (Lorestan)  

BBabol (Mazandaran)   Babolsar (Mazandaran)   Bafq (Yazd)   Baft (Kerman)   Bagh e Malek (Khuzestan)   Bahar (Hamadan)   Bajestan (Razavi Khorasan)   Bam (Kerman)   Bandar Abbas (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Anzali (Gilan)   Bandar e `Asaluyeh (Bushehr)   Bandar e Bushehr (Bushehr)   Bandar e Deylam (Bushehr)   Bandar e Emam Khomeyni (Khuzestan)   Bandar e Ganaveh (Bushehr)   Bandar e Gaz (Golestan)   Bandar e Khamir (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Lengeh (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Mahshahr (Khuzestan)   Bandar e Torkaman (Golestan)   Baneh (Kordestan)   Bardaskan (Razavi Khorasan)   Bardsir (Kerman)   Basht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Bastak (Hormozgan)   Behabad (Yazd)   Behbahan (Khuzestan)   Behshahr (Mazandaran)   Bijar (Kordestan)   Bileh Savar (Ardebil)   Birjand (South Khorasan)   Bojnurd (North Khorasan)   Bonab (East Azarbaijan)   Borazjan (Bushehr)   Borujen (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Borujerd (Lorestan)   Boshruyeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Bostanabad (East Azarbaijan)   Bu'in Zahra (Qazvin)   Bukan (West Azarbaijan)  

CChabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Chadegan (Esfahan)   Chalus (Mazandaran)   Chelgard (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Chenaran (Razavi Khorasan)  

DDalgan (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Damavand (Tehran)   Damghan (Semnan)   Darab (Fars)   Daran (Esfahan)   Dargaz (Razavi Khorasan)   Darreh Shahr (Ilam)   Dasht e Lati (Khuzestan)   Dehaqan (Esfahan)   Dehdasht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Dehgolan (Kordestan)   Dehloran (Ilam)   Delijan (Markazi)   Deyr (Bushehr)   Dezful (Khuzestan)   Divandarreh (Kordestan)   Dogonbadan (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Dorcheh Piaz (Esfahan)   Dorud (Lorestan)   Dowlatabad (Esfahan)   Dowlatabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Dust Mohammad Khan (Sistan and Baluchestan)  

EEqbaliyeh (Tehran)   Eqlid (Fars)   Esfarayen (North Khorasan)   Eshtehard (Tehran)   Eslamabad (Kerman)   Eslamabad e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Eslamshahr (Tehran)   Estahban (Fars)   Eyvan (Ilam)  

FFahraj (Kerman)   Falavarjan (Esfahan)   Famast (Hamadan)   Famenin (Hamadan)   Farashband (Fars)   Fareydunshahr (Esfahan)   Fariman (Razavi Khorasan)   Farmahin (Markazi)   Farrokh Shahr (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Farsan (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Faruj (Razavi Khorasan)   Faryab (Kerman)   Fasa (Fars)   Ferdows (Razavi Khorasan)   Fereydunkenar (Mazandaran)   Feyzabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Firuzabad (Fars)   Firuzeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Firuzkuh (Tehran)   Fuman (Gilan)  

GGalikesh (Golestan)   Galugah (Golestan)   Garmeh (North Khorasan)   Garmsar (Semnan)   Gavbandi (Hormozgan)   Gerash (Fars)   Germi (Ardebil)   Gilan e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Givi (Ardebil)   Golpayegan (Esfahan)   Gomishan (Golestan)   Gonabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Gonbad e Kavus (Golestan)   Gorgan (Golestan)  

HHaftkel (Khuzestan)   Hajjiabad (Hormozgan)   Hajjiabad (Fars)   Hajjiabad (South Khorasan)   Hamadan (Hamadan)   Harsin (Lorestan)   Hashtgerd (Tehran)   Hashtpar (Gilan)   Hashtrud (East Azarbaijan)   Hendijan (Khuzestan)   Heris (East Azarbaijan)   Hoveyzeh (Khuzestan)  

I Ilam (Ilam)   Iranshahr (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Isfahan (Esfahan)   Istgah e Rah Ahan e Garmsar (Semnan)   Izeh (Khuzestan)  

JJahrom (Fars)   Jajarm (North Khorasan)   Jam (Bushehr)   Javanrud (Kermanshah)   Jiroft (Kerman)   Joghtay (Razavi Khorasan)   Jongiyeh (Khuzestan)   Juybar (Mazandaran)  

KKabudarahang (Hamadan)   Kahnuj (Kerman)   Kahriz (Kermanshah)   Kalaleh (Golestan)   Kalat e Naderi (Razavi Khorasan)   Kaleybar (East Azarbaijan)   Kamyaran (Kermanshah)   Kangan (Bushehr)   Kangavar (Kermanshah)   Karaj (Tehran)   Kashan (Esfahan)   Kashmar (Razavi Khorasan)   Kavar (Fars)   Kazerun (Fars)   Kelishad va Sudarjan (Esfahan)   Kerend e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Kerman (Kerman)   Kermanshah (Kermanshah)   Khalilabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Khalkhal (Ardebil)   Khani Yek (Fars)   Khark (Bushehr)   Khash (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Khavas Kuh (Yazd)   Kherameh (Fars)   Khodabandeh (Zanjan)   Khomarlu (East Azarbaijan)   Khomeyn (Markazi)   Khomeyni Shahr (Esfahan)   Khondab (Markazi)   Khonj (Fars)   Khorramabad (Lorestan)   Khorramdarreh (Zanjan)   Khorramshahr (Khuzestan)   Khowrmuj (Bushehr)   Khur (Esfahan)   Khusf (South Khorasan)   Khvaf (Razavi Khorasan)   Khvansar (Esfahan)   Khvoy (West Azarbaijan)   Komijan (Markazi)   Kord Kuy (Golestan)   Kuhbanan (Kerman)   Kuhdasht (Lorestan)   Kuh Sefid (Kerman)  

LLahijan (Gilan)   Lamerd (Fars)   Langarud (Gilan)   Lar (Fars)   Likak (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Lordegan (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)  

MMahabad (West Azarbaijan)   Mahallat (Markazi)   Mahdishahr (Semnan)   Mahmudabad (Mazandaran)   Mahneshan (Zanjan)   Mahriz (Yazd)   Maku (West Azarbaijan)   Malard (Tehran)   Malayer (Hamadan)   Malekan (East Azarbaijan)   Mamuniyeh (Markazi)   Manujan (Kerman)   Maragheh (East Azarbaijan)   Marand (East Azarbaijan)   Maraveh Tappeh (Golestan)   Marivan (Kordestan)   Marvdasht (Fars)   Masal (Gilan)   Mashhad (Razavi Khorasan)   Masiri (Fars)   Masjed Soleyman (Khuzestan)   Mehran (Ilam)   Meshgin Shahr (Ardebil)   Meybod (Yazd)   Miandoab (East Azarbaijan)   Mianeh (East Azarbaijan)   Minab (Hormozgan)   Minudasht (Golestan)   Mobarakeh (Esfahan)   Mohammadabad (Kerman)   Mohr (Fars)   Mollasani (Khuzestan)  

NNahavand (Hamadan)   Na'in (Esfahan)   Najafabad (Esfahan)   Namin (Ardebil)   Naqadeh (West Azarbaijan)   Narmashir (Kerman)   Nashta Rud (Mazandaran)   Natanz (Esfahan)   Nazarabad (Tehran)   Nehbandan (South Khorasan)   Neka (Mazandaran)   Neqab (Razavi Khorasan)   Neyriz (Fars)   Nikshahr (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Nir (Ardebil)   Nishabur (Razavi Khorasan)   Nosratabad (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Nowshahr (Mazandaran)   Nur (Mazandaran)   Nurabad (Lorestan)   Nurabad (Fars)  

OOmidcheh (Ardebil)   Omidiyeh (Khuzestan)   Orumiyeh (West Azarbaijan)   Oshnaviyeh (West Azarbaijan)   Osku (East Azarbaijan)  

PPa'in e Bazar e Rudbar (Gilan)   Pakdasht (Tehran)   pamas (Hamadan)   Parsabad (Ardebil)   Pasragad Branch (Hamadan)   Paveh (Kermanshah)   Piranshahr (West Azarbaijan)   Pishva (Tehran)   Poldasht (West Azarbaijan)   Poldokhtar (Lorestan)   Pol e Sefid (Mazandaran)  

QQa'em Shahr (Mazandaran)   Qa'en (South Khorasan)   Qahderijan (Esfahan)   Qal`eh Ganj (Kerman)   Qal`eh ye Khvajeh (Khuzestan)   Qarah Aghaj (East Azarbaijan)   Qarah Zia' od Din (West Azarbaijan)   Qarchak (Tehran)   Qarnabad (Golestan)   Qasr e Qand (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Qasr e Shirin (Kermanshah)   Qazvin (Qazvin)   Qeshm (Hormozgan)   Qir (Fars)   Qohord e Bala (Hamadan)   Qom (Qom)   Qorveh (Kordestan)   Quchan (Razavi Khorasan)  

RRabor (Kerman)   Rafsanjan (Kerman)   Ramhormoz (Khuzestan)   Ramian (Golestan)   Ramsar (Mazandaran)   Ramshir (Khuzestan)   Rasak (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Rasht (Gilan)   Rashtkhvar (Razavi Khorasan)   Ravansar (Kermanshah)   Ravar (Kerman)   Razan (Hamadan)   Rehnan (Esfahan)   Rey (Tehran)   Rezvanshahr (Gilan)   Robat Karim (Tehran)   Rudan (Hormozgan)   Rudsar (Gilan)  

SSa`adat Shahr (Fars)   Sabzevar (Razavi Khorasan)   Safashahr (Fars)   Sahneh (Kermanshah)   Salmas (West Azarbaijan)   Sanandaj (Kordestan)   Saqqez (Kordestan)   Sarab (East Azarbaijan)   Sarab e Dowreh (Lorestan)   Sarableh (Ilam)   Sarakhs (Razavi Khorasan)   Sarayan (Razavi Khorasan)   Sarbisheh (South Khorasan)   Sardasht (West Azarbaijan)   Sardasht (Hormozgan)   Sari (Mazandaran)   Sarpol e Zahab (Kermanshah)   Sarvabad (Kordestan)   Sarvestan (Fars)   Saveh (Markazi)   Semirom (Esfahan)   Semnan (Semnan)   Sepidan (Fars)   Seyah Cheshmeh (West Azarbaijan)   Shabestar (East Azarbaijan)   Shadegan (Khuzestan)   Shaft (Gilan)   Shahin Dezh (West Azarbaijan)   Shahin Shahr (Esfahan)   Shahrak (Tehran)   Shahrak e Bakharz (Razavi Khorasan)   Shahrak e Emam Hasan e Mojtaba (Tehran)   Shahrak e Kuluri (Khuzestan)   Shahrak e Pabedana (Kerman)   Shahr e Babak (Kerman)   Shahr e Herat (Yazd)   Shahre Jadide Andisheh (Tehran)   Shahr e Kord (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Shahr e Qods (Tehran)   Shahreza (Esfahan)   Shahriar (Tehran)   Shahrud (Semnan)   Shalamzar (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Sharifabad (Tehran)   Shazand (Markazi)   Shiraz (Fars)   Shirvan (North Khorasan)   Showt (West Azarbaijan)   Shush (Khuzestan)   Shushtar (Khuzestan)   Siahkal (Gilan)   Sirjan (Kerman)   Sisakht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Soltanabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Sonqor (Kermanshah)   Sorkheh (Semnan)   Sowme`eh Sara (Gilan)   Surak (Mazandaran)   Suran (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Surian (Fars)   Susangerd (Khuzestan)  

TTabas (Yazd)   Tabriz (East Azarbaijan)   Tafresh (Markazi)   Taft (Yazd)   Tajrish (Tehran)   Takab (West Azarbaijan)   Takestan (Qazvin)   Taleb abad (Tehran)   Taybad (Razavi Khorasan)   Tazehabad (Kermanshah)   Tehran (Tehran)   Tiran (Esfahan)   Tonekabon (Mazandaran)   Torbat e Heydariyeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Torbat e Jam (Razavi Khorasan)   Torqabeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Tuyserkan (Hamadan)  

VVaramin (Tehran)   Varazqan (East Azarbaijan)   Vasian (Lorestan)  

Y Yasuj (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Yazd (Yazd)  

ZZabol (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zaboli (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zahedan (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zanjan (Zanjan)   Zarand (Kerman)   Zarrinabad (Zanjan)   Zarrin Shahr (Esfahan)   Zehak (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Ziabar (Gaskar) (Gilan)  
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Ardebil Bushehr Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari East Azarbaijan Esfahan Fars Gilan Golestan Hamadan Hormozgan Ilam Kerman Kermanshah Khuzestan Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad Kordestan Lorestan Markazi Mazandaran North Khorasan Qazvin Qom Razavi Khorasan Semnan Sistan and Baluchestan South Khorasan Tehran West Azarbaijan Yazd Zanjan


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