Iran Iran

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Iran (Persian: ایرانIrān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia (), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایرانJomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)), is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries.

Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides.

According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader, and severely restricts the participation of candidates in popular elections as well as other forms of political activity. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium.

The sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.

The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).



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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Iran", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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AAbadan (Khuzestan)   Abadeh (Fars)   Abarkuh (Fars)   Ab Bar (Zanjan)   `Abbasabad (Mazandaran)   Abdanan (Ilam)   Abhar (Zanjan)   Abyek (Qazvin)   Aghajari (Khuzestan)   Ahar (East Azarbaijan)   Ahram (Bushehr)   Ahvaz (Khuzestan)   `Ajab Shir (East Azarbaijan)   Akbarabad (Fars)   Aleshtar (Lorestan)   `Aliabad e Katul (Golestan)   Aligudarz (Lorestan)   Alvand (Qazvin)   Alvand (Zanjan)   Amlash (Gilan)   Amol (Mazandaran)   Anar (Kerman)   `Anbarabad (Kerman)   Andimeshk (Khuzestan)   Aq Qala (Golestan)   Aq Qayeh (Golestan)   Aradan (Semnan)   Arak (Markazi)   Arakvaz e Malekshahi (Ilam)   Aran Bidgol (Esfahan)   Ardabil (Ardebil)   Ardakan (Yazd)   Ardal (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Ardestan (Esfahan)   Arsanjan (Fars)   Arzu'iyeh (Kerman)   Asadabad (Hamadan)   Asadiyeh (South Khorasan)   Ashkhaneh (North Khorasan)   Ashtian (Markazi)   Astaneh ye Ashrafiyeh (Gilan)   Astara (Gilan)   Azadshahr (Golestan)   Azadshahr (Hamadan)   Azarshahr (East Azarbaijan)   Azna (Lorestan)   Azna (Lorestan)  

BBabol (Mazandaran)   Babolsar (Mazandaran)   Bafq (Yazd)   Baft (Kerman)   Bagh e Malek (Khuzestan)   Bahar (Hamadan)   Bajestan (Razavi Khorasan)   Bam (Kerman)   Bandar Abbas (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Anzali (Gilan)   Bandar e `Asaluyeh (Bushehr)   Bandar e Bushehr (Bushehr)   Bandar e Deylam (Bushehr)   Bandar e Emam Khomeyni (Khuzestan)   Bandar e Ganaveh (Bushehr)   Bandar e Gaz (Golestan)   Bandar e Khamir (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Lengeh (Hormozgan)   Bandar e Mahshahr (Khuzestan)   Bandar e Torkaman (Golestan)   Baneh (Kordestan)   Bardaskan (Razavi Khorasan)   Bardsir (Kerman)   Basht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Bastak (Hormozgan)   Behabad (Yazd)   Behbahan (Khuzestan)   Behshahr (Mazandaran)   Bijar (Kordestan)   Bileh Savar (Ardebil)   Birjand (South Khorasan)   Bojnurd (North Khorasan)   Bonab (East Azarbaijan)   Borazjan (Bushehr)   Borujen (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Borujerd (Lorestan)   Boshruyeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Bostanabad (East Azarbaijan)   Bu'in Zahra (Qazvin)   Bukan (West Azarbaijan)  

CChabahar (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Chadegan (Esfahan)   Chalus (Mazandaran)   Chelgard (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Chenaran (Razavi Khorasan)  

DDalgan (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Damavand (Tehran)   Damghan (Semnan)   Darab (Fars)   Daran (Esfahan)   Dargaz (Razavi Khorasan)   Darreh Shahr (Ilam)   Dasht e Lati (Khuzestan)   Dehaqan (Esfahan)   Dehdasht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Dehgolan (Kordestan)   Dehloran (Ilam)   Delijan (Markazi)   Deyr (Bushehr)   Dezful (Khuzestan)   Divandarreh (Kordestan)   Dogonbadan (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Dorcheh Piaz (Esfahan)   Dorud (Lorestan)   Dowlatabad (Esfahan)   Dowlatabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Dust Mohammad Khan (Sistan and Baluchestan)  

EEqbaliyeh (Tehran)   Eqlid (Fars)   Esfarayen (North Khorasan)   Eshtehard (Tehran)   Eslamabad (Kerman)   Eslamabad e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Eslamshahr (Tehran)   Estahban (Fars)   Eyvan (Ilam)  

FFahraj (Kerman)   Falavarjan (Esfahan)   Famast (Hamadan)   Famenin (Hamadan)   Farashband (Fars)   Fareydunshahr (Esfahan)   Fariman (Razavi Khorasan)   Farmahin (Markazi)   Farrokh Shahr (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Farsan (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Faruj (Razavi Khorasan)   Faryab (Kerman)   Fasa (Fars)   Ferdows (Razavi Khorasan)   Fereydunkenar (Mazandaran)   Feyzabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Firuzabad (Fars)   Firuzeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Firuzkuh (Tehran)   Fuman (Gilan)  

GGalikesh (Golestan)   Galugah (Golestan)   Garmeh (North Khorasan)   Garmsar (Semnan)   Gavbandi (Hormozgan)   Gerash (Fars)   Germi (Ardebil)   Gilan e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Givi (Ardebil)   Golpayegan (Esfahan)   Gomishan (Golestan)   Gonabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Gonbad e Kavus (Golestan)   Gorgan (Golestan)  

HHaftkel (Khuzestan)   Hajjiabad (Hormozgan)   Hajjiabad (Fars)   Hajjiabad (South Khorasan)   Hamadan (Hamadan)   Harsin (Lorestan)   Hashtgerd (Tehran)   Hashtpar (Gilan)   Hashtrud (East Azarbaijan)   Hendijan (Khuzestan)   Heris (East Azarbaijan)   Hoveyzeh (Khuzestan)  

I Ilam (Ilam)   Iranshahr (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Isfahan (Esfahan)   Istgah e Rah Ahan e Garmsar (Semnan)   Izeh (Khuzestan)  

JJahrom (Fars)   Jajarm (North Khorasan)   Jam (Bushehr)   Javanrud (Kermanshah)   Jiroft (Kerman)   Joghtay (Razavi Khorasan)   Jongiyeh (Khuzestan)   Juybar (Mazandaran)  

KKabudarahang (Hamadan)   Kahnuj (Kerman)   Kahriz (Kermanshah)   Kalaleh (Golestan)   Kalat e Naderi (Razavi Khorasan)   Kaleybar (East Azarbaijan)   Kamyaran (Kermanshah)   Kangan (Bushehr)   Kangavar (Kermanshah)   Karaj (Tehran)   Kashan (Esfahan)   Kashmar (Razavi Khorasan)   Kavar (Fars)   Kazerun (Fars)   Kelishad va Sudarjan (Esfahan)   Kerend e Gharb (Kermanshah)   Kerman (Kerman)   Kermanshah (Kermanshah)   Khalilabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Khalkhal (Ardebil)   Khani Yek (Fars)   Khark (Bushehr)   Khash (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Khavas Kuh (Yazd)   Kherameh (Fars)   Khodabandeh (Zanjan)   Khomarlu (East Azarbaijan)   Khomeyn (Markazi)   Khomeyni Shahr (Esfahan)   Khondab (Markazi)   Khonj (Fars)   Khorramabad (Lorestan)   Khorramdarreh (Zanjan)   Khorramshahr (Khuzestan)   Khowrmuj (Bushehr)   Khur (Esfahan)   Khusf (South Khorasan)   Khvaf (Razavi Khorasan)   Khvansar (Esfahan)   Khvoy (West Azarbaijan)   Komijan (Markazi)   Kord Kuy (Golestan)   Kuhbanan (Kerman)   Kuhdasht (Lorestan)   Kuh Sefid (Kerman)  

LLahijan (Gilan)   Lamerd (Fars)   Langarud (Gilan)   Lar (Fars)   Likak (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Lordegan (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)  

MMahabad (West Azarbaijan)   Mahallat (Markazi)   Mahdishahr (Semnan)   Mahmudabad (Mazandaran)   Mahneshan (Zanjan)   Mahriz (Yazd)   Maku (West Azarbaijan)   Malard (Tehran)   Malayer (Hamadan)   Malekan (East Azarbaijan)   Mamuniyeh (Markazi)   Manujan (Kerman)   Maragheh (East Azarbaijan)   Marand (East Azarbaijan)   Maraveh Tappeh (Golestan)   Marivan (Kordestan)   Marvdasht (Fars)   Masal (Gilan)   Mashhad (Razavi Khorasan)   Masiri (Fars)   Masjed Soleyman (Khuzestan)   Mehran (Ilam)   Meshgin Shahr (Ardebil)   Meybod (Yazd)   Miandoab (East Azarbaijan)   Mianeh (East Azarbaijan)   Minab (Hormozgan)   Minudasht (Golestan)   Mobarakeh (Esfahan)   Mohammadabad (Kerman)   Mohr (Fars)   Mollasani (Khuzestan)  

NNahavand (Hamadan)   Na'in (Esfahan)   Najafabad (Esfahan)   Namin (Ardebil)   Naqadeh (West Azarbaijan)   Narmashir (Kerman)   Nashta Rud (Mazandaran)   Natanz (Esfahan)   Nazarabad (Tehran)   Nehbandan (South Khorasan)   Neka (Mazandaran)   Neqab (Razavi Khorasan)   Neyriz (Fars)   Nikshahr (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Nir (Ardebil)   Nishabur (Razavi Khorasan)   Nosratabad (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Nowshahr (Mazandaran)   Nur (Mazandaran)   Nurabad (Lorestan)   Nurabad (Fars)  

OOmidcheh (Ardebil)   Omidiyeh (Khuzestan)   Orumiyeh (West Azarbaijan)   Oshnaviyeh (West Azarbaijan)   Osku (East Azarbaijan)  

PPa'in e Bazar e Rudbar (Gilan)   Pakdasht (Tehran)   pamas (Hamadan)   Parsabad (Ardebil)   Pasragad Branch (Hamadan)   Paveh (Kermanshah)   Piranshahr (West Azarbaijan)   Pishva (Tehran)   Poldasht (West Azarbaijan)   Poldokhtar (Lorestan)   Pol e Sefid (Mazandaran)  

QQa'em Shahr (Mazandaran)   Qa'en (South Khorasan)   Qahderijan (Esfahan)   Qal`eh Ganj (Kerman)   Qal`eh ye Khvajeh (Khuzestan)   Qarah Aghaj (East Azarbaijan)   Qarah Zia' od Din (West Azarbaijan)   Qarchak (Tehran)   Qarnabad (Golestan)   Qasr e Qand (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Qasr e Shirin (Kermanshah)   Qazvin (Qazvin)   Qeshm (Hormozgan)   Qir (Fars)   Qohord e Bala (Hamadan)   Qom (Qom)   Qorveh (Kordestan)   Quchan (Razavi Khorasan)  

RRabor (Kerman)   Rafsanjan (Kerman)   Ramhormoz (Khuzestan)   Ramian (Golestan)   Ramsar (Mazandaran)   Ramshir (Khuzestan)   Rasak (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Rasht (Gilan)   Rashtkhvar (Razavi Khorasan)   Ravansar (Kermanshah)   Ravar (Kerman)   Razan (Hamadan)   Rehnan (Esfahan)   Rey (Tehran)   Rezvanshahr (Gilan)   Robat Karim (Tehran)   Rudan (Hormozgan)   Rudsar (Gilan)  

SSa`adat Shahr (Fars)   Sabzevar (Razavi Khorasan)   Safashahr (Fars)   Sahneh (Kermanshah)   Salmas (West Azarbaijan)   Sanandaj (Kordestan)   Saqqez (Kordestan)   Sarab (East Azarbaijan)   Sarab e Dowreh (Lorestan)   Sarableh (Ilam)   Sarakhs (Razavi Khorasan)   Sarayan (Razavi Khorasan)   Sarbisheh (South Khorasan)   Sardasht (West Azarbaijan)   Sardasht (Hormozgan)   Sari (Mazandaran)   Sarpol e Zahab (Kermanshah)   Sarvabad (Kordestan)   Sarvestan (Fars)   Saveh (Markazi)   Semirom (Esfahan)   Semnan (Semnan)   Sepidan (Fars)   Seyah Cheshmeh (West Azarbaijan)   Shabestar (East Azarbaijan)   Shadegan (Khuzestan)   Shaft (Gilan)   Shahin Dezh (West Azarbaijan)   Shahin Shahr (Esfahan)   Shahrak (Tehran)   Shahrak e Bakharz (Razavi Khorasan)   Shahrak e Emam Hasan e Mojtaba (Tehran)   Shahrak e Kuluri (Khuzestan)   Shahrak e Pabedana (Kerman)   Shahr e Babak (Kerman)   Shahr e Herat (Yazd)   Shahre Jadide Andisheh (Tehran)   Shahr e Kord (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Shahr e Qods (Tehran)   Shahreza (Esfahan)   Shahriar (Tehran)   Shahrud (Semnan)   Shalamzar (Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari)   Sharifabad (Tehran)   Shazand (Markazi)   Shiraz (Fars)   Shirvan (North Khorasan)   Showt (West Azarbaijan)   Shush (Khuzestan)   Shushtar (Khuzestan)   Siahkal (Gilan)   Sirjan (Kerman)   Sisakht (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Soltanabad (Razavi Khorasan)   Sonqor (Kermanshah)   Sorkheh (Semnan)   Sowme`eh Sara (Gilan)   Surak (Mazandaran)   Suran (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Surian (Fars)   Susangerd (Khuzestan)  

TTabas (Yazd)   Tabriz (East Azarbaijan)   Tafresh (Markazi)   Taft (Yazd)   Tajrish (Tehran)   Takab (West Azarbaijan)   Takestan (Qazvin)   Taleb abad (Tehran)   Taybad (Razavi Khorasan)   Tazehabad (Kermanshah)   Tehran (Tehran)   Tiran (Esfahan)   Tonekabon (Mazandaran)   Torbat e Heydariyeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Torbat e Jam (Razavi Khorasan)   Torqabeh (Razavi Khorasan)   Tuyserkan (Hamadan)  

VVaramin (Tehran)   Varazqan (East Azarbaijan)   Vasian (Lorestan)  

Y Yasuj (Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad)   Yazd (Yazd)  

ZZabol (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zaboli (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zahedan (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Zanjan (Zanjan)   Zarand (Kerman)   Zarrinabad (Zanjan)   Zarrin Shahr (Esfahan)   Zehak (Sistan and Baluchestan)   Ziabar (Gaskar) (Gilan)  
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Ardebil Bushehr Chahar Mahall and Bakhtiari East Azarbaijan Esfahan Fars Gilan Golestan Hamadan Hormozgan Ilam Kerman Kermanshah Khuzestan Kohgiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad Kordestan Lorestan Markazi Mazandaran North Khorasan Qazvin Qom Razavi Khorasan Semnan Sistan and Baluchestan South Khorasan Tehran West Azarbaijan Yazd Zanjan

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