Portugal Portugal

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Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣal]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]), is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. The Pre-Celts, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples.

Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Despite attempts at independence since its foundation as a county in 868, only after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128, where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother, Theresa of Portugal, the County of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal. He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such, by neighbouring kingdoms, on the Treaty of Zamora, in 1143.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (Cabo da Boa Esperança) (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).

During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the Industrial Revolution, the Seven Years' War, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822), erased to an extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War.

Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire.

Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of 300 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. It is the 4th most peaceful country in the world, and its state is the 15th most stable one, maintained under a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government. Additionally, the country ranks highly in terms of democracy (10th), social progress (20th), prosperity (25th), press freedom (14th), moral freedom (3rd), LGBTI rights (7th in Europe), ease of doing business (29th) and road network (2nd).



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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Portugal", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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AAbrantes (Santarem)   Agualva Cacém (Lisboa)   Águeda (Aveiro)   Albergaria a Velha (Aveiro)   Albufeira (Faro)   Alcácer do Sal (SetUbal)   Alcobaça (Leiria)   Alfândega da Fé (Braganca)   Alfena (Porto)   Alfragide (Lisboa)   Algés (Lisboa)   Alhandra (Lisboa)   Almada (SetUbal)   Almagreira (Azores)   Almancil (Faro)   Almeirim (Santarem)   Almodôvar (Beja)   Alpalhão (Portalegre)   Alverca do Ribatejo (Lisboa)   Amadora (Lisboa)   Amarante (Porto)   Amares (Braga)   Amora (SetUbal)   Anadia (Aveiro)   Angra do Heroismo (Azores)   Arcos de Valdevez (Viana do Castelo)   Armação de Pêra (Faro)   Arouca (Aveiro)   Aveiro (Aveiro)  

BBaião (Porto)   Baltar (Porto)   Barcelos (Braga)   Barrancos (Beja)   Barreiro (SetUbal)   Beja (Beja)   Bobadela (Lisboa)   Boticas (Vila Real)   Braga (Braga)   Bragança (Braganca)   Brejo (Azores)  

CCaldas da Rainha (Leiria)   Calheta (Madeira)   Calheta (Azores)   Câmara de Lobos (Madeira)   Caminha (Viana do Castelo)   Caniço (Madeira)   Cantanhede (Coimbra)   Carapito (Guarda)   Carrazeda de Ansiães (Braganca)   Carregal do Sal (Viseu)   Carreira (Porto)   Carreira (Azores)   Cartaxo (Santarem)   Carvalho (Coimbra)   Carvoeiro (Faro)   Cascais (Lisboa)   Castanheira do Ribatejo (Lisboa)   Castelejo (Castelo Branco)   Castelo Branco (Castelo Branco)   Castelo de Paiva (Aveiro)   Castro Daire (Viseu)   Castro Marim (Faro)   Cercosa (Viseu)   Chaves (Vila Real)   Coimbra (Coimbra)   Condeixa a Nova (Coimbra)   Coronado São Romão (Porto)   Cortegaça (Viseu)   Costa de Caparica (SetUbal)   Covelas (Porto)   Covilhã (Castelo Branco)  

DDelongo (Santarem)  

EElvas (Portalegre)   Entroncamento (Santarem)   Ericeira (Lisboa)   Ermesinde (Porto)   Esmoriz (Aveiro)   Espinho (Aveiro)   Esposende (Braga)   Estarreja (Aveiro)   Estremoz (evora)   Évora (evora)   Evoramonte (evora)  

FFafe (Braga)   Faial da Terra (Azores)   Faro (Faro)   Fátima (Santarem)   Felgueiras (Porto)   Fiães (Aveiro)   Figueira da Foz (Coimbra)   Folgosa (Porto)   Freamunde (Porto)   Freixo de Espada à Cinta (Braganca)   Freixo de Numão (Guarda)   Funchal (Madeira)   Fundão (Castelo Branco)   Furadouro (Aveiro)   Fuzeta (Faro)  

GGafanha da Nazaré (Aveiro)   Gafete (Portalegre)   Gavião (Portalegre)   Gens (Porto)   Gonçalo (Guarda)   Gondelim (Coimbra)   Gondomar (Porto)   Gouveia (Guarda)   Grândola (SetUbal)   Guarda (Guarda)   Guimarães (Braga)   Guimarei (Porto)  

H Horta (Azores)  

IÍlhavo (Aveiro)   Imaculado Coração de Maria (Madeira)  

JJanardo (Leiria)  

LLagoa (Faro)   Lagoa (Azores)   Lagoaça (Braganca)   Lagos (Faro)   Lajes das Flores (Azores)   Lamego (Viseu)   Lamelas (Porto)   Lazareto (Madeira)   Leiria (Leiria)   Lisbon (Lisboa)   Lixa (Porto)   Lordelo (Porto)   Loulé (Faro)   Loures (Lisboa)   Lourosa (Aveiro)   Lousada (Porto)   Luso (Aveiro)  

MMacedo de Cavaleiros (Braganca)   Maceira (Leiria)   Machico (Madeira)   Madalena (Azores)   Maia (Porto)   Mangualde (Viseu)   Marco de Canaveses (Porto)   Marinha Grande (Leiria)   Marmeleira (Viseu)   Matosinhos (Porto)   Mealhada (Aveiro)   Mêda (Guarda)   Melgaço (Viana do Castelo)   Melides (SetUbal)   Mesão Frio (Vila Real)   Minde (Santarem)   Miranda do Douro (Braganca)   Mirandela (Braganca)   Mogadouro (Braganca)   Moimenta da Beira (Viseu)   Monção (Viana do Castelo)   Mondim de Basto (Vila Real)   Monsanto (Castelo Branco)   Monte (Madeira)   Montemor o Novo (evora)   Monte Real (Leiria)   Montijo (SetUbal)   Moreira de Rei (Guarda)   Moura (Beja)   Muge (Santarem)   Murça (Vila Real)   Murtosa (Aveiro)  

NNegrelos São Tomé (Porto)   Nordeste (Azores)  

OOdemira (Beja)   Odivelas (Lisboa)   Olhão (Faro)   Olival Basto (Lisboa)   Oliveira de Azeméis (Aveiro)   Oliveira do Bairro (Aveiro)   Oliveira do Hospital (Coimbra)   Ourém (Santarem)   Ovar (Aveiro)  

PPaços de Ferreira (Porto)   Pampilhosa (Aveiro)   Paramos (Aveiro)   Paredes (Porto)   Paredes de Coura (Viana do Castelo)   Pedras de Sao Pedro (Azores)   Pegarinhos (Vila Real)   Penafiel (Porto)   Peniche (Leiria)   Peso da Régua (Vila Real)   Pessegueiro (Coimbra)   Pinhel (Guarda)   Pombal (Leiria)   Ponta Delgada (Azores)   Ponta do Sol (Madeira)   Ponte da Barca (Viana do Castelo)   Ponte de Lima (Viana do Castelo)   Ponte de Sor (Portalegre)   Portalegre (Portalegre)   Portimão (Faro)   Porto (Porto)   Porto Moniz (Madeira)   Povoação (Azores)   Póvoa de Santa Iria (Lisboa)   Póvoa de Santo Adrião (Lisboa)   Póvoa de Varzim (Porto)   Praia (Azores)   Praia da Vitória (Azores)   Praia São Mateus (Azores)  

QQuarteira (Faro)  

RRamada (Lisboa)   Reguengos de Monsaraz (evora)   Ribeira Brava (Madeira)   Ribeira de Pena (Vila Real)   Ribeira do Engenho (Azores)   Ribeira Grande (Azores)   Rio Maior (Santarem)   Rio Tinto (Porto)  

SSabrosa (Vila Real)   Sabugal (Guarda)   Sacavém (Lisboa)   Salvaterra de Magos (Santarem)   Samora Correia (Santarem)   Sangalhos (Aveiro)   Santa Barbara (Azores)   Santa Comba Dão (Viseu)   Santa Cruz (Madeira)   Santa Cruz da Graciosa (Azores)   Santa Cruz das Flores (Azores)   Santa Luzia (Madeira)   Santa Maria da Feira (Aveiro)   Santa Maria Maior (Madeira)   Santa Marta de Penaguião (Vila Real)   Santana (Madeira)   Santarém (Santarem)   Santiago do Cacém (SetUbal)   Santo António (Madeira)   Santo António dos Cavaleiros (Lisboa)   Santo Espirito (Azores)   Santo Tirso (Porto)   São Bartolomeu de Messines (Faro)   São Gonçalo (Madeira)   São Joaninho (Viseu)   São João da Madeira (Aveiro)   São João da Talha (Lisboa)   São Mamede Coronado (Porto)   São Mamede de Infesta (Porto)   São Martinho (Madeira)   São Martinho do Campo (Porto)   São Mateus da Calheta (Azores)   São Pedro (Madeira)   São Pedro Do Sul (Viseu)   São Roque (Madeira)   São Roque do Pico (Azores)   Sao Vicente (Madeira)   Sé (Madeira)   Seia (Guarda)   Seixal (SetUbal)   Serpa (Beja)   Serra do Porto do Urso (Leiria)   Setúbal (SetUbal)   Sever do Vouga (Aveiro)   Silvalde (Aveiro)   Silves (Faro)   Sines (SetUbal)   Soure (Coimbra)  

TTarouca (Viseu)   Tavira (Faro)   Tolosa (Portalegre)   Tomar (Santarem)   Tondela (Viseu)   Torre de Moncorvo (Braganca)   Torres Novas (Santarem)   Trancoso (Guarda)   Trofa (Porto)  

VValbom (Porto)   Vale (Porto)   Vale de Cambra (Aveiro)   Valença (Viana do Castelo)   Valongo (Porto)   Valpaços (Vila Real)   Valverde (Azores)   Velas (Azores)   Vendas Novas (evora)   Vermoim (Porto)   Viana do Castelo (Viana do Castelo)   Vidigueira (Beja)   Vieira de Leiria (Leiria)   Vila Baleira (Madeira)   Vila Boim (Portalegre)   Vila das Aves (Porto)   Vila de Capelas (Azores)   Vila do Conde (Porto)   Vila do Porto (Azores)   Vila Flor (Braganca)   Vila Franca de Xira (Lisboa)   Vila Franca do Campo (Azores)   Vilamoura (Faro)   Vila Nova de Cerveira (Viana do Castelo)   Vila Nova de Famalicão (Braga)   Vila Nova de Foz Côa (Guarda)   Vila Nova de Gaia (Porto)   Vila Nova de Paiva (Viseu)   Vila Nova de Santo André (SetUbal)   Vila Real (Vila Real)   Vila Real de Santo António (Faro)   Vilar Formoso (Guarda)   Vimioso (Braganca)   Vinhais (Braganca)   Viseu (Viseu)   Vizela (Braga)  
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