Syria Syria

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Syria (Arabic: سوريا‎, romanized: Sūriyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية‎, romanized: al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunnis make up the largest religious group in Syria.

Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism. It is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has become suspended from the Arab League in November 2011 and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.

In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (The region of Syria, known in Arabic as al-Sham), while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The modern Syrian state was established in the mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces. It gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The republic was renamed into the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and was increasingly unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1971 to 2000.

Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise. As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Rojava, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world due to the war, although life continues normally for most of its citizens as of December 2017. The war caused more than 470,000 deaths (February 2016 SCPR estimate), 7.6 million internally displaced people (July 2015 UNHCR estimate) and over 5 million refugees (July 2017 registered by UNHCR), making population assessment difficult in recent years.

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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Syria", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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AAbu az Zuhur (Idlib)   Abu Qalqal (Aleppo)   Ad Daliyah (Lattakia)   Ad Dana (Idlib)   Ad Dimas (Rif Dimashq)   Ad Dumayr (Rif Dimashq)   `Afrin (Aleppo)   Akhtarin (Aleppo)   Al `Annazah (Tartus)   Al `Arimah (Aleppo)   Al `Asharah (Dayr Az Zawr)   Al Atarib (Aleppo)   Al Bab (Aleppo)   Al Bahluliyah (Lattakia)   Al Bariqiyah (Tartus)   Albu Kamal (Dayr Az Zawr)   Al Busayrah (Dayr Az Zawr)   Aleppo (Aleppo)   Al Fakhurah (Lattakia)   Al Furqlus (Hims)   Al Ghandurah (Aleppo)   Al Ghariyah (As Suwayda)   Al Ghizlaniyah (Rif Dimashq)   Al Hadir (Aleppo)   Al Haffah (Lattakia)   Al Hajar al Aswad (Rif Dimashq)   Al Hajib (Aleppo)   Al Hamra' (Idlib)   Al Harak (Dar a)   Al Hasakah (Al iasakah)   Al Hawash (Hims)   Al Hawl (Al iasakah)   Al Hinadi (Lattakia)   Al Jala' (Dayr Az Zawr)   Al Janudiyah (Idlib)   Al Jarniyah (Ar Raqqah)   Al Jawadiyah (Al iasakah)   Al Jizah (Dar a)   Al Karamah (Ar Raqqah)   Al Karimah (Tartus)   Al Kasrah (Dayr Az Zawr)   Al Khafsah (Aleppo)   Al Kiswah (Rif Dimashq)   Al Ma`batli (Aleppo)   Al Malikiyah (Al iasakah)   Al Mansurah (Ar Raqqah)   Al Mayadin (Dayr Az Zawr)   Al Mazra`ah (As Suwayda)   Al Mismiyah (Dar a)   Al Mulayhah (Rif Dimashq)   Al Musayfirah (Dar a)   Al Mushannaf (As Suwayda)   Al Muzayri`ah (Lattakia)   Al Muzayrib (Dar a)   Al Qabw (Hims)   Al Qadmus (Tartus)   Al Qahtaniyah (Al iasakah)   Al Qamishli (Al iasakah)   Al Qamsiyah (Tartus)   Al Qardahah (Lattakia)   Al Qaryatayn (Hims)   Al Qurayya (As Suwayda)   Al Qusayr (Hims)   Al Qutayfah (Rif Dimashq)   Al Qutaylibiyah (Lattakia)   Al Ya`rubiyah (Al iasakah)   Amude (Al iasakah)   An Nabk (Rif Dimashq)   An Nashabiyah (Rif Dimashq)   An Nasirah (Hims)   Ariha (Idlib)   `Ariqah (As Suwayda)   `Arishah (Al iasakah)   Armanaz (Idlib)   Ar Raqqah (Ar Raqqah)   Ar Rastan (Hims)   Ar Rawdah (Tartus)   Ar Riqama (Hims)   Ar Ruhaybah (Rif Dimashq)   Ash Shaddadah (Al iasakah)   Ash Shajarah (Dar a)   Ash Shaykh Badr (Tartus)   Ash Shaykh Miskin (Dar a)   As Sab` Biyar (Hims)   As Sabkhah (Ar Raqqah)   As Safirah (Aleppo)   As Safsafah (Tartus)   `Assal al Ward (Rif Dimashq)   As Salamiyah (Hamah)   As Sanamayn (Dar a)   As Sawda (Tartus)   As Si`in (Hamah)   As Sisniyah (Tartus)   As Sukhnah (Hims)   As Suqaylibiyah (Hamah)   As Surah as Saghirah (Dar a)   As Susah (Dayr Az Zawr)   As Suwayda' (As Suwayda)   Ath Thawrah (Ar Raqqah)   At Tall (Rif Dimashq)   At Tamani`ah (Idlib)   At Tawahin (Tartus)   At Tibni (Dayr Az Zawr)   `Awaj (Hamah)   'Ayn al 'Arab (Aleppo)   `Ayn al Bayda (Lattakia)   `Ayn al Fijah (Rif Dimashq)   `Ayn an Nasr (Hims)   `Ayn ash Sharqiyah (Lattakia)   `Ayn at Tinah (Lattakia)   `Ayn Halaqim (Hamah)   `Ayn `Isa (Ar Raqqah)   `Ayn Shiqaq (Lattakia)   Az Zabadani (Rif Dimashq)   Az Zarbah (Aleppo)   Az Ziyarah (Hamah)  

BBabila (Rif Dimashq)   Banan (Aleppo)   Baniyas (Tartus)   Barri ash Sharqi (Hamah)   Bayt Yashut (Lattakia)   Bdama (Idlib)   Binnish (Idlib)   Bi'r al Hulw al Wardiyah (Al iasakah)   Bostanci (Al iasakah)   Brummanat al Mashayikh (Tartus)   Bulbul (Aleppo)   Busra ash Sham (Dar a)  

DDa`il (Dar a)   Damascus (Rif Dimashq)   Dar'a (Dar a)   Darat `Izzah (Aleppo)   Darayya (Rif Dimashq)   Darkush (Idlib)   Dayr `Atiyah (Rif Dimashq)   Dayr Hafir (Aleppo)   Deir ez Zor (Dayr Az Zawr)   Dhiban (Dayr Az Zawr)   Dhibin (As Suwayda)   Douma (Rif Dimashq)   Duraykish (Tartus)   Duwayr Raslan (Tartus)  

GGhabaghib (Dar a)  

HHadidah (Hims)   Hajin (Dayr Az Zawr)   Halfaya (Hamah)   Hamah (Hamah)   Hammam Wasil (Tartus)   Harasta (Damascus)   Harbinafsah (Hamah)   Harf al Musaytirah (Lattakia)   Harim (Idlib)   Harran al `Awamid (Rif Dimashq)   Himmin (Tartus)   Hish (Idlib)   Hisya (Hims)   Homs (Hims)   Huraytan (Aleppo)  

I Idlib (Idlib)   Ihsim (Idlib)   Inkhil (Dar a)   `Irbin (Damascus)   I`zaz (Aleppo)   Izra` (Dar a)  

JJablah (Lattakia)   Jarabulus (Aleppo)   Jaramana (Rif Dimashq)   Jasim (Dar a)   Jawbat Burghal (Lattakia)   Jayrud (Rif Dimashq)   Jindayris (Aleppo)   Jisr ash Shughur (Idlib)   Jubb al Jarrah (Hims)   Jubb Ramlah (Hamah)   Junaynat Raslan (Tartus)  

KKaff al Jaa (Tartus)   Kafr Batna (Damascus)   Kafr Laha (Hims)   Kafr Nubl (Idlib)   Kafr Takharim (Idlib)   Kafr Zayta (Hamah)   Kassab (Lattakia)   Khan Arnabah (Quneitra)   Khanasir (Aleppo)   Khan Shaykhun (Idlib)   Khirbat al Ma`azzah (Tartus)   Khirbat Ghazalah (Dar a)   Khirbat Tin Nur (Hims)   Khusham (Dayr Az Zawr)   Kinnsibba (Lattakia)   Kurnaz (Hamah)   Kuwayris Sharqi (Aleppo)  

L Latakia (Lattakia)  

MMa`arrat an Nu`man (Idlib)   Ma`arratmisrin (Idlib)   Ma`dan (Ar Raqqah)   Mahin (Hims)   Malah (As Suwayda)   Ma`lula (Rif Dimashq)   Manbij (Aleppo)   Mari` (Aleppo)   Markadah (Al iasakah)   Mashta al Hulw (Tartus)   Maskanah (Aleppo)   Masyaf (Hamah)   Mazra`at Bayt Jinn (Rif Dimashq)   Medaya (Rif Dimashq)   Muhambal (Idlib)   Muh Hasan (Dayr Az Zawr)   Muhradah (Hamah)   Mukharram al Fawqani (Hims)   Murak (Hamah)  

NNahiyat as Sab` Biyar (Hims)   Nawa (Dar a)   Nubl (Aleppo)  

QQadsiya (Rif Dimashq)   Qal`at al Madiq (Hamah)   Qarah (Rif Dimashq)   Qarqania (Idlib)   Qastal Ma`af (Lattakia)   Qatana (Rif Dimashq)  

RRabi`ah (Lattakia)   Radjun (Aleppo)   Rankus (Rif Dimashq)   Ra's al Khashufah (Tartus)   Rasm al Harmal (Aleppo)  

SSabbah (Tartus)   Sabburah (Hamah)   Sadad (Hims)   Sahnaiya (Rif Dimashq)   Salakhid (As Suwayda)   Salkhad (As Suwayda)   Salqin (Idlib)   Saraqib (Idlib)   Sarmin (Idlib)   Sa`sa` (Rif Dimashq)   Satita (Tartus)   Saydnaya (Rif Dimashq)   Shahba (As Suwayda)   Shaqqa (As Suwayda)   Sharan (Aleppo)   Shathah (Hamah)   Shaykh al Hadid (Aleppo)   Shin (Hims)   Shuyukh Tahtani (Aleppo)   Sinjar (Idlib)   Sirghaya (Rif Dimashq)   Sirrin ash Shamaliyah (Aleppo)   Slinfah (Lattakia)   Souran (Hamah)   Subaykhan (Dayr Az Zawr)   Suluk (Ar Raqqah)   Suran (Aleppo)  

TTadif (Aleppo)   Tadmur (Hims)   Tafas (Dar a)   Taftanaz (Idlib)   Talin (Tartus)   Tall Abyad (Ar Raqqah)   Tall ad Daman (Aleppo)   Tallbisah (Hims)   Talldaww (Hims)   Tall Hamis (Al iasakah)   Tallkalakh (Hims)   Tall Rif`at (Aleppo)   Tall Salhab (Hamah)   Tall Tamr (Al iasakah)   Tasil (Dar a)   Tayyibat al Imam (Hamah)   Tchoban Bey (Aleppo)   Tremseh (Hamah)  

U`Uqayribat (Hamah)  

WWadi al `Uyun (Tartus)  

YYabrud (Rif Dimashq)  
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