Ethiopia Ethiopia

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Ethiopia (; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, listen ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk listen ), is a country in the northeastern part of Africa, popularly known as the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With over 102 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa.

Some of the oldest skeletal evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from which modern humans first set out for the Middle East and places beyond. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era. Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia's governmental system was a monarchy for most of its history. In the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, followed by the Ethiopian Empire circa 1137. During the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, Ethiopia was one of two nations to retain its sovereignty from long-term colonialism by a European colonial power. Many newly-independent nations on the continent subsequently adopted its flag colours. The country was occupied by Italy in 1936 and became Italian Ethiopia (part of the Italian East Africa) until 1941. Ethiopia was also the first independent member from Africa of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations. In 1974, the Ethiopian monarchy under Haile Selassie was overthrown by the Derg, a communist military government backed by the Soviet Union. In 1987, the Derg established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, but it was overthrown in 1991 by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, which has been the ruling political coalition since.

Ethiopia and Eritrea use the ancient Ge'ez script, which is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and P'ent'ay), whereas around a third follows Islam (primarily Sunni). The country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, also resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s. Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities.

The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Additionally, the sovereign state is a founding members of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Its capital city Addis Ababa serves as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force, and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia experienced civil conflicts and communist purges, which hindered its economy. The country has since recovered and now has the largest economy (by GDP) in East Africa, having the largest population in the region.



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AAbadra (Amhara)   Abala (Afar)   Abba Jimma (Oromia)   Abiy Addi (Tigray)   Abomsa (Oromia)   Abora (Oromia)   Achamo (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Achuwa (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Adaba (Oromia)   Adagalla (Somali)   Adama (Oromia)   Addis Abeba (Addis Ababa)   Addis Alem (Oromia)   Addis Kidan (Amhara)   Adele (Oromia)   Adi Arkay (Amhara)   Adis Zemen (Amhara)   Adulala (Oromia)   Adwa (Tigray)   Afdem (Somali)   Agarfa (Oromia)   Agaro (Oromia)   Agula (Tigray)   Aira (Oromia)   Alaba Qulito (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Alamaya (Oromia)   Aleltu (Oromia)   Alem Ketema (Amhara)   Alem Teferi (Oromia)   Alemtena (Oromia)   Ali (Oromia)   Alibo (Oromia)   Almahal (Benshangul Gumaz)   Amaya (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Ambo (Oromia)   Angach'A (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Angiyo Kolla (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Arbe Gebeya (Oromia)   Arboye (Oromia)   Areka (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Arerti (Amhara)   Arsi Negelle (Oromia)   Asaita (Afar)   Asassa (Oromia)   Asendabo (Oromia)   Ashenat (Amhara)   Ashoka Velag (Oromia)   Asigori (Oromia)   Asosa (Benshangul Gumaz)   Assella (Oromia)   Awash (Afar)   Awash (Oromia)   Awassa (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Axum (Tigray)   Ayesha (Somali)   Azezo (Amhara)  

BBabich (Oromia)   Bahir Dar (Amhara)   Bako (Oromia)   Balchi (Amhara)   Bale (Oromia)   Bale (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Balemi (Oromia)   Banitu (Oromia)   Bati (Amhara)   Bedele (Oromia)   Bedeno (Oromia)   Beke (Oromia)   Beke Kelate (Oromia)   Bekoji (Oromia)   Belessa (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Bendi (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Bike (Somali)   Bila (Oromia)   Bilo (Oromia)   Bitahora (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Bitata (Oromia)   Bizet (Tigray)   Bocco (Oromia)   Bofa Town (Oromia)   Boke Tiko (Oromia)   Bokoksa (Amhara)   Bokolmanyo Refugee Camp (Somali)   Bole (Oromia)   Bolo (Oromia)   Bolo Silasie (Amhara)   Bombasi (Benshangul Gumaz)   Bonga (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Bookh (Somali)   Bordode (Oromia)   Bore (Oromia)   Boreda (Oromia)   Boreda (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Buhoodle (Somali)   Bui (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Bulala (Oromia)   Bure (Oromia)   Burie (Amhara)   Burka (Oromia)   Busa (Oromia)   Butajira (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Buundada (Somali)  

CChagni (Amhara)   Chancho (Oromia)   Ch'Ank'A / Sadi (Oromia)   Chefedonsa (Oromia)   Chele (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Chelenko (Oromia)   Chencha (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Chifra (Afar)   Chiro (Oromia)   Chitu (Oromia)   Chucko (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  

DDaka (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Dambidollo (Oromia)   Dangla (Amhara)   Dawo (Oromia)   ddgrat (Tigray)   Debark (Amhara)   Debeso (Oromia)   Debre Birhan (Amhara)   Debre Libanos (Oromia)   Debre Mark'os (Amhara)   Debre Sina (Amhara)   Debre Tabor (Amhara)   Debre Tsige (Oromia)   Debre Zeit (Oromia)   Debre Zeyit (Benshangul Gumaz)   Dedecha Bela (Oromia)   Deder (Oromia)   Degem Hambiso (Oromia)   Degolo (Amhara)   Dejen (Amhara)   Dekebora (Oromia)   Deksis (Oromia)   Del (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Delosebro (Oromia)   Demebecha (Amhara)   Denan (Somali)   Dendeba (Amhara)   Deneba (Amhara)   Dera (Oromia)   Derba (Oromia)   Derek' Amba (Amhara)   Dessie (Amhara)   Dewele (Somali)   Digo Tsion (Amhara)   Dilela (Oromia)   Dilla (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Dima (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Dima (Oromia)   Dimbra (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Dimeka (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Dinsho (Oromia)   Dir Dawa (Dire Dawa)   Dire (Oromia)   Diri (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Doba (Oromia)   Dodolla (Oromia)   Dolo (Somali)   Doni (Oromia)   Dorze (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Doyogena (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Duber (Oromia)   Dufti (Afar)   Dugda (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Durame (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  

EEdjere (Oromia)   Edo (Oromia)   Ejaji (Oromia)   Ejere (Oromia)   Ejersa (Oromia)   Elias (Amhara)   El Ley (Oromia)   Emanueil (Amhara)   Enchini (Oromia)   Enjebara (Amhara)   Enseno (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Enwari (Amhara)   Esara Balle (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Eso (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  

FFadi (Tigray)   Felege Birhan (Amhara)   Feleke Selam (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Fenote selam (Amhara)   Feres Bet (Amhara)   Ferfer (Somali)   Fiche (Oromia)   Fiche Gelila (Oromia)   Filiklik (Oromia)   Finicha'a (Oromia)   Fital (Oromia)   Fofa (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Frewayni (Tigray)  

GGado Dona (Oromia)   Galladi (Somali)   Gambela (Gambela Peoples)   Gandi Dudi (Oromia)   Garasse (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Gasachare (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Gasera (Oromia)   Gatira (Oromia)   Gebre gurach (Oromia)   Geche (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Gechi (Oromia)   Gedo (Oromia)   Gelemso (Oromia)   Gelila (Oromia)   Gembe (Oromia)   Gera (Oromia)   Gerbo (Oromia)   Geshena (Amhara)   Gesuba (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Getema (Oromia)   Gewane (Afar)   Ghimbi (Oromia)   Gida Ayana (Oromia)   Ginido (Oromia)   Ginir (Oromia)   Ginsi (Oromia)   Girawa (Oromia)   Gish Abay (Amhara)   Giundu (Oromia)   Goba (Oromia)   Goben (Oromia)   Gobesa (Oromia)   Gohatsion (Oromia)   Gojeb (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Gojo Town (Oromia)   Gorabee (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Gore (Oromia)   Gorki (Oromia)   Goro (Oromia)   Goru (Oromia)   Gosh Bado (Amhara)   Gouder (Oromia)   Gubba (Benshangul Gumaz)   Gundey (Amhara)   Gurura (Oromia)   Gutin (Oromia)  

HHabe (Oromia)   Hadero (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Hagareselam (Tigray)   Hagere Mariyam (Oromia)   Hamus Gebeya (Oromia)   Harar (Harari People)   Hareto (Oromia)   Hare Wacha (Oromia)   Haro Adi (Oromia)   Hawzien (Tigray)   Hidilola (Oromia)   Hinde (Oromia)   Hirna (Oromia)   Hobicheba (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Holeta (Oromia)   Hossa'ina (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Hudat (Oromia)   Humera (Tigray)   Hurta (Oromia)   Huse (Oromia)   Hyke (Amhara)  

IImi (Somali)   Imiye (Amhara)   InchIni (Oromia)   Inticho (Tigray)   Itang (Gambela Peoples)  

JJaja (Oromia)   Jara (Oromia)   Jawi (Amhara)   Jeba (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Jere (Oromia)   Jihur (Amhara)   Jijiga (Somali)   Jimma (Oromia)   Jinka (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  

KKachise (Oromia)   Kaka (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Karakore (Amhara)   Karamile (Oromia)   Karat Konso (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Kebri Dehar (Somali)   Kefole (Oromia)   Kela (Oromia)   Kela (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Kellafo (Somali)   Kelo (Oromia)   Kembolcha (Amhara)   Kemse (Amhara)   Kersa (Oromia)   Kersa (Oromia)   Kibet (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Kiremu (Oromia)   Kobe Refugee Camp (Somali)   Kobo (Oromia)   Koche (Oromia)   Koibi (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Kombolcha (Oromia)   Komona (Oromia)   Koshe (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Kriru Kara (Oromia)   Kula (Oromia)   Kulubi (Oromia)   Kurfa Chele (Oromia)   Kuta Ber (Amhara)   Kuyira (Oromia)  

LLalibela (Amhara)   Lasarat (Somali)   Leka (Oromia)   Lemen (Oromia)   Limushay (Oromia)   Logiya (Afar)  

MMaganasse (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Mambuk (Benshangul Gumaz)   Manasebo (Benshangul Gumaz)   Mandi (Oromia)   Mare (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Masha (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Maychew (Tigray)   Maymekden (Tigray)   Mechara (Oromia)   Mechitu (Oromia)   Mega (Oromia)   Mek'el (Tigray)   Meki (Oromia)   Melkadida Refugee Camp (Somali)   Melka Jebdu (Dire Dawa)   Melkane Selam (Amhara)   Melkasa (Oromia)   Melka Uda (Oromia)   Menagesha (Oromia)   Mengie (Benshangul Gumaz)   Meraro (Oromia)   Mertule Mariam (Amhara)   Mesela (Oromia)   Meshenti (Amhara)   Metahara (Oromia)   Meti Chafi / Tilk u Meti (Gambela Peoples)   Metu (Oromia)   Micheta (Oromia)   Mieso (Oromia)   Minare (Oromia)   Mindeera (Benshangul Gumaz)   Mintamir (Amhara)   Mirafadle (Somali)   Mistima (Amhara)   Mizan Teferi (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Moje (Oromia)   Mojo (Oromia)   Mota (Amhara)   Moyale (Oromia)   Muger (Oromia)   Muketuri (Oromia)   Mulo (Oromia)  

NNegash (Tigray)   Negele (Oromia)   Nejo (Oromia)   Nekemte (Oromia)   Nifas Mewch'A (Amhara)  

OOda (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Ombole (Oromia)   Omo (Oromia)  

PPawi (Benshangul Gumaz)   Pochalla (Gambela Peoples)   Pujido (Gambela Peoples)  

QQoqa (Oromia)   Quiha (Tigray)  

RRaaso (Somali)   rba Minch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Robe (Oromia)   Robe (Oromia)   Robe Gerjeda (Oromia)  

SSagure (Oromia)   Saja (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Salla Dingai (Amhara)   Samre (Tigray)   Sandafe (Oromia)   Sebeta (Oromia)   Seka (Oromia)   Sekoru (Oromia)   Sekota (Amhara)   Sele (Tigray)   Semera (Afar)   Serera (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Seru (Oromia)   Seyo (Oromia)   Shahura Alefa (Amhara)   Shambu (Oromia)   Shano (Oromia)   Shashamane (Oromia)   Shebe (Oromia)   Shebel (Oromia)   Shehibi (Amhara)   Sheik Hussein (Oromia)   Shenen (Oromia)   Sheno (Oromia)   Shilabo (Somali)   Shinile (Somali)   Shira (Oromia)   Shire (Tigray)   Shoa Robit (Amhara)   Shoboka (Oromia)   Shone (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Shukute (Oromia)   Sibo (Oromia)   Siero (Tigray)   Sigmo (Oromia)   Sirambi (Oromia)   Sire (Oromia)   Sire Robe (Oromia)   Sodere (Oromia)   Sodo (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Sof Omar (Oromia)   Sologiorgis (Amhara)   Sululta (Oromia)   Sumbo (Oromia)  

TTarcha (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Tarmaba (Amhara)   Tebla (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Tefki (Oromia)   Teji (Oromia)   Tepi (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Terre (Oromia)   Tibe (Oromia)   Ticho (Oromia)   Tis Abay (Amhara)   Tiya (Oromia)   Tiyo (Oromia)   Tobba (Oromia)   Tocha (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Togechane (Somali)   T'Ora (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Tsege (Oromia)   Tulu Bolo (Oromia)   Tulu Milki (Oromia)   Tulu Wayo (Oromia)  

UUfa (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Uke (Oromia)   Unkown Town (Benshangul Gumaz)   Unkown Town (Amhara)  

WWabe (Oromia)   WachIle (Oromia)   Wachu (Oromia)   Washa (Oromia)   Wayu (Oromia)   Wefe (Oromia)   Wegide (Oromia)   Wekepeche (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Welabu (Oromia)   Weldiya (Amhara)   Welenchede (Oromia)   Weliso (Oromia)   Welkite (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Werder (Somali)   Wereta (Amhara)   Wolenkomi (Oromia)   Woncho (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Workmeda (Amhara)   Wuibareg (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)   Wukro (Tigray)  

YYabelo (Oromia)   Yayu (Oromia)   Yebu (Oromia)   Yeed (Somali)   Yirgalem (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  

ZZiway (Oromia)   Zizencio (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)  
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