Kazakhstan Kazakhstan

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Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан, translit. Qazaqstan, IPA: [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] ( listen); Russian: Казахстан, IPA: [kəzɐxˈstan]), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасы, translit. Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Russian: Республика Казахстан, tr. Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi). Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It also has vast mineral resources.

Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre (15 people per sq mi). The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the country's largest city.

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz (ancestor branches occupying specific territories). The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union.

Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, has been leader of the country since then, and is characterised as authoritarian, with a government history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion", and other human rights organisations regularly describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor.

Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs (63% of the population), Russians, Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Germans, Tatars, and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan officially allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed. The Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, and TURKSOY.



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AAbay (Qaraghandy)   Akkol' (Aqmola)   Akkol' (Atyrau)   Aksu (Aqmola)   Aksu (Pavlodar)   Aksuat (East Kazakhstan)   Aktau (Mangghystau)   Aktau (Qaraghandy)   Aktogay (Qaraghandy)   Akzhal (Qaraghandy)   Almaty (Almaty)   Altay (East Kazakhstan)   Aqadyr (Qaraghandy)   Aqbaqay (Zhambyl)   Aqkoel (Aqmola)   Aqsay (West Kazakhstan)   Aqshatau (Qaraghandy)   Aqsu Ayuly (Qaraghandy)   Aqtas (Qaraghandy)   Aqtau (Qaraghandy)   Aqtobe (Aqtobe)   Aqtoghay (East Kazakhstan)   Aral (Qyzylorda)   Arkalyk (Qostanay)   Arys (South Kazakhstan)   Ashchysay (South Kazakhstan)   Astana (Aqmola)   Astrakhan (Aqmola)   Asubulaq (East Kazakhstan)   Atasu (Qaraghandy)   Atbasar (Aqmola)   Atyrau (Atyrau)   Ayagoz (East Kazakhstan)   Ayteke Bi (Qyzylorda)  

BBakanas (Almaty)   Bakyrshik (East Kazakhstan)   Balkashino (Aqmola)   Balpyk Bi (Almaty)   Balqash (Qaraghandy)   Balyqshy (Atyrau)   Batamshinskiy (Aqtobe)   Bayanauyl (Pavlodar)   Bayganin (Aqtobe)   Baykonyr (Qyzylorda)   Bayshonas (Atyrau)   Bayzhansay (South Kazakhstan)   Belkol (Qyzylorda)   Belogorskiy (East Kazakhstan)   Belusovka (East Kazakhstan)   Belyye Vody (South Kazakhstan)   Bestobe (Aqmola)   Beyneu (Mangghystau)   Birlestik (North Kazakhstan)   Bishkul (North Kazakhstan)   Borodulikha (East Kazakhstan)   Borovskoy (Qostanay)   Bulayevo (North Kazakhstan)   Burabay (Aqmola)   Burlin (West Kazakhstan)   Burunday (Almaty)  

CChapaev (West Kazakhstan)   Chardara (South Kazakhstan)   Chayan (South Kazakhstan)   Chingirlau (West Kazakhstan)   Chu (Zhambyl)   Chulakkurgan (South Kazakhstan)  

DDerzhavinsk (Aqmola)   Dolinka (Qaraghandy)   Dossor (Atyrau)   Dostyq (Almaty)   Dzhalagash (Qyzylorda)   Dzhambeyty (West Kazakhstan)   Dzhangala (West Kazakhstan)   Dzhetygara (Qostanay)  

EEgindikol (Aqmola)   Ekibastuz (Pavlodar)   Embi (Aqtobe)   Esik (Almaty)   Esil (Aqmola)  

FFedorovka (Qostanay)   Fedorovka (West Kazakhstan)   Fort Shevchenko (Mangghystau)  

GGeorgievka (East Kazakhstan)   Georgiyevka (Zhambyl)   Glubokoye (East Kazakhstan)   Granitogorsk (Zhambyl)  

IInderbor (Atyrau)   Irtyshsk (Pavlodar)  

KKachar (Qostanay)   Kamenka (West Kazakhstan)   Kandyagash (Aqtobe)   Kantagi (South Kazakhstan)   Kapshagay (Almaty)   Karabas (Almaty)   Karagandy (Qaraghandy)   Karasu (Qostanay)   Karatau (Zhambyl)   Kaztalovka (West Kazakhstan)   Kegen (Almaty)   Kentau (South Kazakhstan)   Khantau (Zhambyl)   Khromtau (Aqtobe)   Kievka (Qaraghandy)   Kokpekty (East Kazakhstan)   Kokshetau (Aqmola)   Koktal (Qaraghandy)   Kokterek (South Kazakhstan)   Koktobe (Pavlodar)   Komsomolets (Qostanay)   Kostanay (Qostanay)   Krasnogorskiy (Aqmola)   Krugloozernoe (West Kazakhstan)   Kurchatov (Pavlodar)   Kurchum (East Kazakhstan)   Kyzylorda (Qyzylorda)   Kyzyl Orda (Qyzylorda)   Kyzylzhar (Qaraghandy)   Kzyltu (North Kazakhstan)  

LLenger (South Kazakhstan)   Leninskiy (Pavlodar)   Leninskoye (South Kazakhstan)   Lepsy (Almaty)   Lisakovsk (Qostanay)   Lugovoy (Zhambyl)   Lugovoye (Zhambyl)  

MMakhambet (Atyrau)   Makinsk (Aqmola)   Maleevsk (East Kazakhstan)   Maloye Ganyushkino (Atyrau)   Maqat (Atyrau)   Martuk (Aqtobe)   Matay (Almaty)   Mayqayyng (Pavlodar)   Merke (Zhambyl)   Mikhaylovka (Zhambyl)   Miyaly (Atyrau)   Moyynkum (Zhambyl)   Moyynty (Qaraghandy)   Munayshy (Mangghystau)   Mynaral (Zhambyl)  

NNovodolinskiy (Qaraghandy)   Novoishimskiy (North Kazakhstan)  

OOgnevka (East Kazakhstan)   Omirzaq (Mangghystau)   Oral (West Kazakhstan)   Ordzhonikidze (Qostanay)   Osakarovka (Qaraghandy)   Otegen Batyra (Almaty)   Oytal (Zhambyl)  

P Pavlodar (Pavlodar)   Peremetnoe (West Kazakhstan)   Pervomayskiy (Almaty)   Pervorosiyskiy (East Kazakhstan)   Petropavl (North Kazakhstan)   Priisk Boko (East Kazakhstan)   Priozersk (Qaraghandy)  

QQalqaman (Pavlodar)   Qaraton (Atyrau)   Qarauyl (East Kazakhstan)   Qarazhal (Qaraghandy)   Qarqaraly (Qaraghandy)   Qashyr (Pavlodar)   Qazaly (Qyzylorda)   Qogham (South Kazakhstan)   Qulsary (Atyrau)   Qushoqy (Qaraghandy)   Qusmuryn (Qostanay)  

RRidder (East Kazakhstan)   Rudnyy (Qostanay)  

SSaken Seyfullin (Qaraghandy)   Sarkand (Almaty)   Saryaghash (South Kazakhstan)   Sarykamys (East Kazakhstan)   Saryozek (Almaty)   Saryshaghan (Qaraghandy)   Sastobe (South Kazakhstan)   Sayaq (Qaraghandy)   Saykhin (West Kazakhstan)   Sayotesh (Mangghystau)   Sekseuil (Qyzylorda)   Semey (East Kazakhstan)   Sergeyevka (North Kazakhstan)   Shakhan (Qaraghandy)   Shalkar (Atyrau)   Shalqar (Aqtobe)   Shalqiya (Qyzylorda)   Shantobe (Aqmola)   Shar (East Kazakhstan)   Shashubay (Qaraghandy)   Shchuchinsk (Aqmola)   Shemonaikha (East Kazakhstan)   Shetpe (Mangghystau)   Shieli (Qyzylorda)   Shortandy (Aqmola)   Shubarkol (Qaraghandy)   Shubarkuduk (Aqtobe)   Shubarshi (Aqtobe)   Shyghanaq (Zhambyl)   Shymkent (South Kazakhstan)   Smirnovo (North Kazakhstan)   Sorang (Qaraghandy)   Stepnogorsk (Aqmola)   Stepnyak (Aqmola)   Suykbulak (East Kazakhstan)  

TTaiynsha (North Kazakhstan)   Taldykorgan (Almaty)   Taldyqorghan (Almaty)   Talghar (Almaty)   Talshik (North Kazakhstan)   Taranovskoye (Qostanay)   Taraz (Zhambyl)   Tasboget (Qyzylorda)   Taushyq (Mangghystau)   Tekeli (Almaty)   Temir (Aqtobe)   Temirlanovka (South Kazakhstan)   Temirtau (Qaraghandy)   Terenozek (Qyzylorda)   Timiryazevo (North Kazakhstan)   Tobol (Qostanay)   Tokarevka (Qaraghandy)   Toretam (Qyzylorda)   Torghay (Qostanay)   Troyebratskiy (Qostanay)   Tughyl (East Kazakhstan)   Turgen (Almaty)   Turkestan (South Kazakhstan)  

UUlken (Almaty)   Urzhar (East Kazakhstan)   Ush Tyube (Almaty)   Ust Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan)   Ust' Talovka (East Kazakhstan)  

VVannovka (South Kazakhstan)   Verkhniye Kayrakty (Qaraghandy)   Volodarskoye (North Kazakhstan)  

YYanykurgan (Qyzylorda)   Yavlenka (North Kazakhstan)   Yeraliyev (Mangghystau)   Yereymentau (Aqmola)   Yrghyz (Aqtobe)  

ZZavodskoy (Aqmola)   Zaysan (East Kazakhstan)   Zhabagly (South Kazakhstan)   Zhalghyztobe (East Kazakhstan)   Zhambyl (Qaraghandy)   Zhanaozen (Mangghystau)   Zhanga Buqtyrma (East Kazakhstan)   Zhangatas (Zhambyl)   Zhanibek (West Kazakhstan)   Zhaqsy (Aqmola)   Zharkent (Almaty)   Zhelezinka (Pavlodar)   Zhetibay (Mangghystau)   Zhezkent (East Kazakhstan)   Zhezqazghan (Qaraghandy)   Zholymbet (Aqmola)   Zhosaly (Qyzylorda)   Zhumysker (West Kazakhstan)   Zyryanovsk (East Kazakhstan)  
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Almaty Aqmola Aqtobe Atyrau East Kazakhstan Mangghystau North Kazakhstan Pavlodar Qaraghandy Qostanay Qyzylorda South Kazakhstan West Kazakhstan Zhambyl

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