Venezuela Venezuela

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Venezuela ( (listen); American Spanish: [beneˈswela] (listen)), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi). The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. The Venezuelan government maintains a claim against Guyana to Guayana Esequiba, an area of 159,542 km2 (61,600 sq mi). For its maritime areas, Venezuela exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 (27,527 sq mi) of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 (8,581 sq mi) in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 (182,050 sq mi) of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 (38,567 sq mi) of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District (covering Caracas), and federal dependencies (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela also claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre (61,583 sq mi) tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación (the "zone under dispute"). Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America; the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital (Caracas) which is also the largest city in Venezuela.

The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, which was not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia. It gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos (military strongmen) until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written. This new constitution officially changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela).

Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously, the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak. The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez then established populist social welfare policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. In 2013, Hugo Chávez died, shortly after being elected to a fourth term, and was succeeded by Nicolás Maduro, elected by a narrow majority in a widely disputed election. Maduro continued the populist policies of Chávez, but with disasterous results. The nation's economy collapsed because of their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy— and are widely blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy. The destabilized economy led to a crisis in Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, poverty, disease, child mortality, malnutrition and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country. By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year and 10,000,000% in 2019 Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI.

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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Venezuela", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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AAbejales (Tachira)   Acarigua (Portuguesa)   Agua Blanca (Portuguesa)   Agua Clara (Trujillo)   Agua de Vaca (Nueva Esparta)   Aguasay (Monagas)   Altagracia (Nueva Esparta)   Amuay (Falc on)   Anaco (Anzoategui)   Aragua de Barcelona (Anzoategui)   Aragua de Maturín (Monagas)   Araure (Portuguesa)   Araya (Sucre)   Aroa (Yaracuy)  

B Barcelona (Anzoategui)   Barinas (Barinas)   Barinitas (Barinas)   Barquisimeto (Lara)   Barrancas (Monagas)   Bejuma (Carabobo)   Betijoque (Trujillo)   Bobare (Lara)   Boca de Grita (Tachira)   Boca de Pozo (Nueva Esparta)   Boca de Río (Nueva Esparta)   Boconó (Tachira)   Boconoito (Barinas)   Brisas de Jalisco (Trujillo)   Buena Vista (Falc on)   Burbusay (Trujillo)  

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DDabajuro (Falc on)   Delicias (Tachira)  

E Ejido (Merida)   El Amparo (Apure)   El Basquero (Anzoategui)   El Baúl (Cojedes)   El Callao (Bolivar)   El Canal (Tachira)   El Chaparro (Anzoategui)   El Chícaro (Tachira)   El Cobre (Tachira)   El Consejo (Aragua)   El Corozo (Tachira)   El Dorado (Bolivar)   El Espinal (Nueva Esparta)   El Furrial (Monagas)   El Guamache (Nueva Esparta)   El Guapo (Miranda)   El Jordán (Tachira)   El Junquito (Distrito Capital)   El Limón (Carabobo)   El Manzano (Lara)   El Milagro (Tachira)   El Nula (Apure)   Elorza (Apure)   El Peñón (Tachira)   El Piache (Nueva Esparta)   El Piñal (Tachira)   El Sombrero (Guarico)   El Tejero (Monagas)   El Tigre (Anzoategui)   El Tocuyo (Lara)   El Triunfo (Delta Amacuro)   El Valle del Espíritu Santo (Nueva Esparta)   El Vigía (Merida)   El Vinculo (Falc on)  

GGuacamaya (Aragua)   Guacara (Carabobo)   Guanaguana (Monagas)   Guanare (Portuguesa)   Guanarito (Portuguesa)   Guanta (Anzoategui)   Guarenas (Miranda)   Guarero (Zulia)   Guasdualito (Apure)   Guatire (Miranda)   Güigüe (Carabobo)   Güiria (Sucre)  

HHato de La Virgen (Tachira)   Hernández (Tachira)   Higuerote (Miranda)  

IIsnotú (Trujillo)  

JJuan Griego (Nueva Esparta)  

KKavanayén (Bolivar)  

LLa Arabia (Tachira)   La Asunción (Nueva Esparta)   La Cañada de Urdaneta (Zulia)   La Cejita (Trujillo)   La Concepción (Trujillo)   La Concepción (Zulia)   La Florida (Tachira)   La Fragua (Anzoategui)   La Fria (Tachira)   La Fundación (Tachira)   La Grita (Tachira)   La Guaira (Vargas)   La Guardia (Nueva Esparta)   Lagunillas (Merida)   La Mulata (Tachira)   La Paragua (Bolivar)   La Pedrera (Tachira)   La Providencia (Tachira)   La Recta de Ayari (Tachira)   Las Mesas (Tachira)   Las Tejerías (Aragua)   Las Vegas (Cojedes)   La Tendida (Tachira)   La Victoria (Aragua)   Lechería (Anzoategui)   Lobatera (Tachira)   Los Barrancos de Fajardo (Monagas)   Los Guayos (Carabobo)   Los Naranjos (Carabobo)   Los Naranjos (Tachira)   Los Naranjos (Zulia)   Los Puertos de Altagracia (Zulia)   Los Teques (Miranda)  

MMacanillo (Tachira)   Machiques (Zulia)   Macho Muerto (Nueva Esparta)   Magdaleno (Aragua)   Mamporal (Miranda)   Manrique (Cojedes)   Mantecal (Apure)   Manuare (Carabobo)   Maracaibo (Zulia)   Maracay (Aragua)   Mariara (Carabobo)   Maroa (Amazonas)   Maturín (Monagas)   Mérida (Merida)   Michelena (Tachira)   Montalbán (Carabobo)   Morón (Carabobo)   Morotuto (Tachira)   Moruy (Falc on)   Motatan (Trujillo)   Mucuchies (Merida)   Mucuruba (Merida)  

N Naguanagua (Carabobo)   Naranjales (Tachira)  

O Ocumare del Tuy (Miranda)   Onoto (Anzoategui)   Orope (Tachira)   Ortiz (Guarico)  

PPalmira (Tachira)   Palo Negro (Aragua)   Pampatar (Nueva Esparta)   Paraguaipoa (Zulia)   Pariaguán (Anzoategui)   Payara (Apure)   Pedregales (Nueva Esparta)   Piacoa (Delta Amacuro)   Playa Colorada (Sucre)   Porlamar (Nueva Esparta)   Potrero de Las Casas (Tachira)   Pregonero (Tachira)   Pueblo Hondo (Tachira)   Pueblo Los Bagres (Aragua)   Pueblo Nuevo (Falc on)   Puerto Ayacucho (Amazonas)   Puerto Cabello (Carabobo)   Puerto Colombia (Aragua)   Puerto Escondido (Falc on)   Puerto Fermín (Nueva Esparta)   Puerto La Cruz (Anzoategui)   Puerto Maya (Aragua)   Puerto Moreno (Nueva Esparta)   Puerto Ordaz (Bolivar)   Puerto Paez (Apure)   Puerto Píritu (Anzoategui)   Puertos de Santa Fé (Sucre)   Punta Arenas (Nueva Esparta)   Punta Cardon (Falc on)   Punta de Mata (Monagas)   Punta de Piedras (Nueva Esparta)   Punto Fijo (Falc on)  

QQuebrada De La Virgen (Portuguesa)   Queniquea (Tachira)   Quibor (Lara)   Quiriquire (Monagas)  

RRio Caribe (Sucre)   Rio Chico (Miranda)   Robledal (Nueva Esparta)   Rubio (Tachira)  

SSabana de Mendoza (Trujillo)   Sabana de Parra (Yaracuy)   Sabana Libre (Trujillo)   Sabaneta (Barinas)   San Agustin (Monagas)   San Antonio (Tachira)   San Antonio de los Altos (Miranda)   San Carlos (Cojedes)   San Carlos de Río Negro (Amazonas)   San Casimiro (Aragua)   San Cristóbal (Tachira)   San Diego (Carabobo)   San Felipe (Yaracuy)   San Félix (Monagas)   San Fernando de Apure (Guarico)   San Fernando de Atabapo (Amazonas)   San Francisco (Zulia)   San Francisco de Asís (Aragua)   San Francisco de Cara (Aragua)   San Francisco de Macanao (Nueva Esparta)   San Isidro (Bolivar)   San Joaquín de Navay (Tachira)   San Josecito (Tachira)   San Jose De Barlovento (Miranda)   San José de Bolívar (Tachira)   San José de Guanipa (Anzoategui)   San José de Tiznados (Guarico)   San Juan (Trujillo)   San Juan Bautista (Nueva Esparta)   San Juan de los Morros (Guarico)   San Martín de Turumbang (Bolivar)   San Mateo (Anzoategui)   San Miguel (Lara)   San Pedro de Coche (Nueva Esparta)   San Pedro de los Altos (Miranda)   San Pedro del Rio (Tachira)   San Rafael de Onoto (Portuguesa)   San Rafael de Orituco (Guarico)   San Sebastián (Aragua)   San Simón (Tachira)   Santa Ana (Nueva Esparta)   Santa Ana (Anzoategui)   Santa Ana (Tachira)   Santa Bárbara (Monagas)   Santa Bárbara de Barinas (Barinas)   Santa Bárbara del Zulia (Zulia)   Santa Cruz (Aragua)   Santa Cruz de Bucaral (Falc on)   Santa Cruz de los Taques (Falc on)   Santa Cruz De Mora (Merida)   Santa Elena de Uairen (Bolivar)   Santa Lucía (Miranda)   Santa María de Ipire (Guarico)   Santa Rita (Carabobo)   Santa Rita (Zulia)   Santa Teresa (Miranda)   Santo Domingo (Merida)   San Vicente de La Revancha (Tachira)   Sara Linda Parte Baja (Trujillo)   Seboruco (Tachira)   Sinamaica (Zulia)   Socopó (Barinas)   Soledad (Anzoategui)  

T Táriba (Tachira)   Temblador (Monagas)   Tinaco (Cojedes)   Tinaquillo (Cojedes)   Tocuyito (Carabobo)   Tovar (Merida)   Trujillo (Trujillo)   Tucupido (Guarico)   Tucupita (Delta Amacuro)   Turmero (Aragua)  

UUmuquena (Tachira)   Upata (Bolivar)   Urachiche (Yaracuy)   Urb. Villa Esperanza (Nueva Esparta)   Urb. Villa Juana (Nueva Esparta)   Urb. Villa Rosa (Nueva Esparta)   Ureña (Tachira)  

V Valencia (Carabobo)   Valera (Trujillo)   Valle de Guanape (Anzoategui)   Valle de la Pascua (Guarico)   Villa de Cura (Aragua)  

YYaguaraparo (Sucre)   Yaritagua (Lara)   Yumare (Yaracuy)  

Z Zaraza (Guarico)   Zorca (Tachira)   Zuata (Guarico)  
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